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Exam 70-461
Study for Microsoft Exam 70-461
58
Software
Professional
05/29/2014

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Term
What are the mathematical branches that the relational model is based on?
Definition
Set theory and predicate logic
Term
What is the difference between T-SQL and SQL?
Definition
SQL is standard; T-SQL is the dialect of and extension to SQL that Microsoft implements in its RDBMS - SQL Server
Term
Name two aspects in which T-SQL deviates from the relational model.
Definition
A relation has a body with a distinct set of tuples. A table doesn't have to have a key. T-SQL allows referring to ordinal positions of columns in the ORDER BY clause.
Term
Why are the terms "field" and "record" incorrect when referring to column and row?
Definition
Because "field" and "record" describe physical things, whereas columns and rows are logical elements of a table.
Term
Why is the term "NULL value" incorrect
Definition
Because NULL isn't a value; it's a mark for a missing value.
Term
Would you use the type FLOAT to represent a product unit price?
Definition
No, because FLOAT is an approximate data type and cannot represent all values precisely.
Term
What is the difference between NEWID and NEWSEQUENTIALID?
Definition
The NEWID function generates GUID values in random order, whereas the NEWSEQUENTIALID function generates GUIDs that increase in a sequential order.
Term
Which function returns the current date and time value as a DATETIME2 type?
Definition
The SYSDATETIME function.
Term
When concatenating character strings, what is the difference between the plus (+) operator and the CONCAT function?
Definition
The + operator by default yields a NULL result on NULL input, whereas the CONCAT function treats NULLs as empty strings.
Term
Why is it important for SQL Server to maintain the ACID quality of transactions?
Definition
To ensure that the integrity of database data will not be compromised.
Term
How does SQL Server implement transaction durability?
Definition
By first writing all changes to the database transaction log before making changes to the database data.
Term
How many ROLLBACKs must be executed in a nested transaction to roll it back?
Definition
Only one ROLLBACK. A ROLLBACK always rolls back the entire transaction, no matter how many levels the transaction has.
Term
How many COMMITs must be executed in a nested transaction to ensure that the entire transaction is committed?
Definition
One COMMIT for each level of the nested transaction. Only the last COMMIT actually commits the entire transaction.
Term
Can readers (shared locks) block readers?
Definition
No, because shared locks are compatible with other shared locks.
Term
Can readers block writers (exclusive locks)?
Definition
Yes, even if only momentarily, because any exclusive lock request has to wait until the shared lock is released.
Term
If two transactions never block each other, can a deadlock between them result?
Definition
No. In order to deadlock, each transaction must already have locked a resource the other transaction wants, resulting in mutual blocking.
Term
Can a SELECT statement be involved in a deadlock?
Definition
Yes. If the SELECT statement locks some resource that keeps a second transaction from finishing, and the SELECT cannot finish because it is blocked by the same transaction, the deadlock cycle results.
Term
If your session is in the READ COMMITTED isolation level, is it possible for one of your queries to read uncommitted data?
Definition
Yes, if the query uses the WITH (NOLOCK) or WITH (READUNCOMMITTED) table hint. The session value for the isolation level does not change, just the characteristics for reading that table.
Term
Is there a way to prevent readers from blocking writers and still ensure that readers only see committed data?
Definition
Yes, that is the purpose of the READ COMMITTED SNAPSHOT option within the READ COMMITTED isolation level. Readers see earlier versions of data changes for current transactions, not the currently uncommitted data.
Term
Which function do you use to return the last identity value generated in a specific table?

* MAX
* SCOPE_IDENTITY
* @@IDENTITY
* IDENT_CURRENT
Definition
* IDENT_CURRENT
* Correct : The IDENT_CURRENT function accepts a table name as input and returns the last identity value generated in that table.
Term
What are the advantages of using a sequence object instead of IDENTITY? (Choose all that apply.)

* The IDENTITY property doesn’t guarantee that there won’t be gaps and the sequence object does.

* The IDENTITY property cannot be added to or removed from an existing column; a DEFAULT constraint with a NEXT VALUE FOR function can be added to or removed from an existing column.

* A new identity value cannot be generated before issuing an INSERT statement, whereas a sequence value can.

* You cannot provide your own value when inserting a row into a table with an IDENTITY column without special permissions. You can specify your own value for a column that normally gets its values from a sequence object.
Definition
* The IDENTITY property cannot be added to or removed from an existing column; a DEFAULT constraint with a NEXT VALUE FOR function can be added to or removed from an existing column.
* Correct : One of the advantages of using a sequence object instead of IDENTITY is that you can attach a DEFAULT constraint that has a call to the NEXT VALUE FOR function to an existing column, or remove such a constraint from a column.

* A new identity value cannot be generated before issuing an INSERT statement, whereas a sequence value can.
* Correct : You can generate a new sequence value before using it by assigning the value to a variable and later using the variable in an INSERT statement. This cannot be done with IDENTITY.

* You cannot provide your own value when inserting a row into a table with an IDENTITY column without special permissions. You can specify your own value for a column that normally gets its values from a sequence object.
* Correct : You can specify your own value for a column that has an IDENTITY property, but this requires turning on the session option IDENTITY_INSERT, which in turn requires special permissions. The sequence object is more flexible. You can insert your own values into a column that normally gets its value from a sequence object. And that’s without needing to turn on any special options and without needing special permissions.
Term
In an INSERT SELECT statement, how do you generate sequence values in specific order?

* Use the OVER clause in the NEXT VALUE FOR function.

* Specify an ORDER BY clause at the end of the query.

* Use TOP (100) PERCENT and ORDER BY in the query.

* Use TOP (9223372036854775807) and ORDER BY in the query.
Definition
* Use the OVER clause in the NEXT VALUE FOR function.
* Correct : Using the OVER clause, you can control the order of assignment of sequence values in an INSERT SELECT statement.
Term
Which WHEN clauses are required in a MERGE statement at minimum?

* At minimum, the WHEN MATCHED and WHEN NOT MATCHED clauses are required.

* At minimum, only one clause is required, and it can be any of the WHEN clauses.

* At minimum, the WHEN MATCHED clause is required.

* At minimum, the WHEN NOT MATCHED clause is required.
Definition
* At minimum, only one clause is required, and it can be any of the WHEN clauses.
* Correct : Only one clause is required at minimum, and it can be any of the WHEN clauses.
Term
What can you specify as the source data in the USING clause? (Choose all that apply.)

* A regular table, table variable, or temporary table

* A table expression like a derived table or a CTE

* A stored procedure

* A table function like OPENROWSET or OPENXML
Definition
* A regular table, table variable, or temporary table
* Correct : Tables, table variables, and temporary tables are allowed.

* A table expression like a derived table or a CTE
* Correct : Table expressions are allowed.

* A table function like OPENROWSET or OPENXML
* Correct : Table functions are allowed.
Term
Which clause of the MERGE statement isn’t standard?

* The WHEN MATCHED clause

* The WHEN NOT MATCHED clause

* The WHEN NOT MATCHED BY SOURCE clause

* All MERGE clauses are standard.
Definition
* The WHEN NOT MATCHED BY SOURCE clause
* Correct : The WHEN NOT MATCHED BY SOURCE clause isn’t standard.
Term
When referring in the OUTPUT clause to columns from the inserted rows, when should you prefix the columns with the keyword inserted?

* Always

* Never

* Only when the statement is UPDATE

* Only when the statement is MERGE
Definition
* Always
* Correct : When referring to elements from inserted rows, you must always prefix the column with the keyword inserted.
Term
What is the restriction in regard to the table specified as the target of an OUTPUT INTO clause? (Choose all that apply.)

* The table can only be a table variable.

* The table can only be a temporary table.

* The table cannot participate in either side of a foreign key relationship.

* The table cannot have triggers defined on it.
Definition
* The table cannot participate in either side of a foreign key relationship.
* Correct : The target table cannot take part in a foreign key relationship.

* The table cannot have triggers defined on it.
* Correct : The target table cannot have triggers defined on it.
Term
Which of the following is only possible when using the MERGE statement in regard to the OUTPUT clause?

* Referring to columns from the source table

* Referring to both the keywords deleted and inserted

* Assigning aliases to output columns

* Using composable DML
Definition
* Referring to columns from the source table
* Correct : Only in a MERGE statement’s OUTPUT clause can you refer to elements from the source table.
Term
You are creating a table named Fluctuation for the Hovercraft database. You are creating a column named Reading to store
integer values between -30,000 and 30,000. You want to minimize the space used by the column.

Which of the following Transact-SQL statements can you use to accomplish this goal?

1. CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading int)
2. CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading tinyint)
3. CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading bigint)
4. CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading smallint)
Definition
4. CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading smallint)

You should use the CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading smallint) statement. The smallint data type consumes 2 bytes and can
record integer values between -32,768 and 32,767. This is appropriate for your goal.

You should NOT use the CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading int) statement. Although the int type can record the values required,
the data type consumes 4 bytes. You can use less space by using the smallint data type.

You should NOT use the CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading tinyint) statement. The tinyint data type can only record values
between 0 and 255 and is inappropriate for your needs.

You should NOT use the CREATE TABLE Fluctuation (Reading bigint) statement. The bigint data type can record the values
required, but the data type consumes 8 bytes. You can use less space by using the smallint data type.
Term
The Alpha and Beta views are associated with the Australia schema. You want to move the Beta view to the Europe schema and
delete the Alpha view.

Which of the following statements would you use to accomplish this goal? (Each correct answer presents part of a complete
solution. Choose two.)

1. DROP VIEW [Europe].[Beta]
2. DROP VIEW [Australia].[Alpha]
3. ALTER VIEW [Australia] TRANSFER [Europe].[Beta]
4. ALTER SCHEMA [Europe] TRANSFER [Australia].[Beta]
Definition
2. DROP VIEW [Australia].[Alpha]
4. ALTER SCHEMA [Europe] TRANSFER [Australia].[Beta]

Explanation:
You need to use the ALTER SCHEMA [Europe] TRANSFER [Australia].[Beta] statement. This statement moves the Beta view from
the Australia schema to the Europe schema.

You need to use the DROP VIEW [Australia].[Alpha] statement. This statement removes the Alpha view from the Australia schema.

You do not need to use the DROP VIEW [Europe].[Beta] statement. This statement drops the Beta view located in the Europe
schema.

You do not need to use the ALTER VIEW [Australia] TRANSFER [Europe].[Beta] statement. This statement moves the Beta view
from the Europe schema to the Australia schema.
Term
How can you add custom error messages?
Definition
You can use the system stored procedure sp_addmessage to add your own custom error messages.
Term
What is severity level 0 used for?
Definition
When you issue a RAISERROR with severity level 0, only an informational message is sent. If you add WITH NOWAIT, the message will be sent without waiting in the output buffer.
Term
What are the main advantages of using a TRY/CATCH block over the traditional trapping for @@ERROR?
Definition
The main advantage is that you have one place in your code that errors will be trapped, so you only need to put error handling in one place.
Term
Can a TRY/CATCH block span batches?
Definition
No, you must have one set of TRY/CATCH blocks for each batch of code.
Term
What are the forms of aliasing an attribute in T-SQL?
Definition
The forms are < expression > AS , < expression > , and = < expression >.
Term
What is an irregular identifier?
Definition
An identifier that does not follow the rules for formatting identifiers; for example, it starts with a digit, has an embedded space, or is a reserved T-SQL keyword.
Term
Can you generate and execute dynamic SQL in a different database than the one your code is in?
Definition
Yes, because the USE < database > command can be inserted into a dynamic SQL batch.
Term
What are some objects that cannot be referenced in T-SQL by using variables?
Definition
Objects that you cannot use variables for in T-SQL commands include the database name in a USE statement, the table name in a FROM clause, column names in the SELECT and WHERE clauses, and lists of literal values in the IN() and PIVOT() functions.
Term
How can a hacker detect that SQL injection may be possible?
Definition
By inserting a single quotation mark and observing an error message.
Term
Where is the injected code inserted?
Definition
Between an initial single quotation mark, which terminates the data input string, and a final comment mark, which disables the internal terminating single quotation mark.
Term
How can you pass information from sp_executesql to the caller?
Definition
Use one or more OUTPUT parameters. You can also persist the data in a permanent or temporary table, but the most direct method is through the OUTPUT parameter.
Term
How does sp_executesql help stop SQL injection?
Definition
You can use sp_executesql to parameterize user input, which can prevent any injected code from being executed.
Term
Which of the following techniques can be used to inject unwanted code into dynamic SQL when user input is concatenated with valid SQL commands?

*Insert a comment string of two dashes, then the malicious code, and then a single quotation mark.

*Insert a single quotation mark, then the malicious code, and then a comment string of two dashes.

*Insert the malicious code followed
Definition
* Insert a single quotation mark, then the malicious code, and then a comment string of two dashes.
* Correct : The initial single quotation mark terminates the input string, and the final comment removes the effect of the terminating single quotation mark. Then the malicious code can be inserted in between them.
Term
What are the advantages of sp_executesql over the EXECUTE() command? (Choose all that apply.)

*sp_executesql can parameterize search arguments and help prevent SQL injection.

*sp_executesql uses Unicode strings.

*sp_executesql can return data through output parameters.
Definition
* sp_executesql can parameterize search arguments and help prevent SQL injection.
* Correct : Parameterization is the key advantage of sp_executesql over the EXEC() statement because it ensures that any injected code will only be seen as a string parameter value, and not as executable code.

* sp_executesql can return data through output parameters.
* Correct : The use of output parameters solves a serious limitation of the EXECUTE command. EXECUTE cannot return information to the calling session directly.
Term
Which of the following are true about the SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER statement? (Choose all that apply.)

*When set to ON, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER allows you to use double quotation marks to delimit T-SQL identifiers such as table and column names.

*When set to OFF, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER allows you to use double quotation marks to delimit T-SQL identifiers such as table and column names.

*When set to ON, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER allows you to use double quotation marks to delimit strings.

*When set to OFF, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER allows you to use double quotation marks to delimit strings.
Definition
* When set to ON, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER allows you to use double quotation marks to delimit T-SQL identifiers such as table and column names.
* Correct : When you set QUOTED_IDENTIFIER to ON, you can use double quotation marks to delimit T-SQL identifiers such as table and column names.

* When set to OFF, QUOTED_IDENTIFIER allows you to use double quotation marks to delimit strings.
* Correct : When you set QUOTED_IDENTIFIER to OFF, you can use double quotation marks to delimit strings.
Term
How can you get an XSD schema together with an XML document from your SELECT statement?
Definition
You should use the XMLSCHEMA directive in the FOR XML clause.
Term
Which FOR XML options are valid? (Choose all that apply.)

* FOR XML AUTO
* FOR XML MANUAL
* FOR XML DOCUMENT
* FOR XML PATH
Definition
* FOR XML AUTO
* Correct : FOR XML AUTO is a valid option to produce automatically formatted XML.

* FOR XML PATH
* Correct : With the FOR XML PATH option, you can format XML explicitly.
Term
Which directive of the FOR XML clause should you use to produce element-centric XML?

* ATTRIBUTES
* ROOT
* ELEMENTS
* XMLSCHEMA
Definition
* ELEMENTS
* Correct : Use the ELEMENTS option to produce element-centric XML.
Term
Which FOR XML options can you use to manually format the XML returned? (Choose all that apply.)

* FOR XML AUTO
* FOR XML EXPLICIT
* FOR XML RAW
* FOR XML PATH
Definition
* FOR XML EXPLICIT
* Correct : FOR XML EXPLICIT allows you to manually format the XML returned.

* FOR XML PATH
* Correct : FOR XML PATH allows you to manually format the XML returned.
Term
What do you do in the return clause of the FLWOR expressions?
Definition
In the return clause, you format the resulting XML of a query.
Term
What would be the result of the expression (12, 4, 7) != 7?
Definition
The result would be true.
Term
Which of the following is not a FLWOR clause?

* for
* let
* where
* over
* return
Definition
* for
* Incorrect : for is a FLWOR clause.

* let
* Incorrect : let is a FLWOR clause.

* where
* Incorrect : where is a FLWOR clause.

* over
* Correct : over is not a FLWOR clause; O stands for the order by clause.

* return
* Incorrect : return is a FLWOR clause.
Term
Which node type test can be used to retrieve all nodes of an XML instance?

* Asterisk (*)
* comment()
* node()
* text()
Definition
* Asterisk (*)
* Incorrect : With the asterisk (*), you retrieve all principal nodes.

* comment()
* Incorrect : With comment(), you retrieve comment nodes.

* node()
* Correct : You use the node() node-type test to retrieve all nodes.

* text()
* Incorrect : With text(), you retrieve text nodes.
Term
Which conditional expression is supported in XQuery?

* IIF
* if..then..else
* CASE
* switch
Definition
* IIF
* Incorrect : IIF is not an XQuery expression.

* if..then..else
* Correct : XQuery supports the if..then..else conditional expression.

* CASE
* Incorrect : CASE is not an XQuery expression.

* switch
* Incorrect : switch is not an XQuery expression.
Term
Which XML data type method would you use to retrieve scalar values from an XML instance?
Definition
The value() XML data type method retrieves scalar values from an XML instance.
Term
Which of the following is not an XML data type method?

* merge()
* nodes()
* exist()
* value()
Definition
* merge()
* Correct : merge() is not an XML data type method.

* nodes()
* Incorrect : nodes() is an XML data type method.

* exist()
* Incorrect : exist() is an XML data type method.

* value()
* Incorrect : value() is an XML data type method.
Term
What kind of XML indexes can you create? (Choose all that apply.)

* PRIMARY
* PATH
* ATTRIBUTE
* PRINCIPALNODES
Definition
* PRIMARY
* Correct : You create a PRIMARY XML index before any other XML indexes.

* PATH
* Correct : A PATH XML index is especially useful if your queries specify path expressions.

* ATTRIBUTE
* Incorrect : There is no general ATTRIBUTE XML index.

* PRINCIPALNODES
* Incorrect : There is no general PRINCIPALNODES XML index.
Term
Which XML data type method do you use to shred XML data to tabular format?

* modify()
* nodes()
* exist()
* value()
Definition
* modify()
* Incorrect : You use the modify() method to update XML data.

* nodes()
* Correct : You use the nodes() method to shred XML data.

* exist()
* Incorrect : You use the exist() method to test whether a node exists.

* value()
* Incorrect : You use the value() method to retrieve a scalar value from XML data.
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